Definition and use of the subject:
The subject is the person, place, thing, animal or idea that is doing or being something in a sentence.
*       Person doing something = /The baby is throwing bottles. /The child is wearing a pant./ (other examples from students)
*     Place doing something = /The city of Moscow is hosting the world cup 2018./ This area harbors a lot of snakes/(other examples from students)
*      Thing or idea doing something = /Teqno’s robot drives an automobile./ Religion influences human life positively (other examples from students)
–          Animal doing something = /The elephant is milking its calf/ The horse is protecting its colt./ (other examples from students)
*      Person being something = This goes with verbs of state: /The girl is lazy./ He looks tired/ They seem dubious/ The Director appears exhausted/ My parents feel proud when I pass my exams/ Your food smells nice./ He has a cold./
*     Place being something = /Washington is covered in snow/ The town appears foggy/ 
*          Thing or idea being something = /The speakers are too loud/ Your idea has merit/ It sounds classy./
NB: If the subject in a sentence is singular, the verb that follows must be conjugated in singular but if it is in plural, the verb must be in the plural
Position in a structure: 
*         The subject stands in front of the finite or conjugated verb.
Example: The girl is lazy./ The elephant is milking its calf/
*          It can come after the finite or conjugated verb in questions,
Example: Have you eaten/ Do you speak English?/
Rule: When the subject stands in front or behind a verb or action, it determines the number and tense of the verb.
Example: The boy is tired./ The child is throwing bottles. Singular subject = singular verb
                  The boys are tired. /Children are throwing bottles. /Plural subject = plural verb

Rule: The subject can be a pronoun, a noun, a clause, a phrase, a gerund (verbal noun)

a.       It is windy.(pronoun)
b.      The girl is standing near the tree.(noun phrase)
c.       Standing beside a tree in windy conditions can be dangerous.(a clause)
d.      Eating revives the body.(gerund)
e.       When wind brings down fruits, she picks them.(noun … pronoun)
f.        The wind blows down fruits. (noun phrase)
g.       The girl fears the fruits could knock her head.(noun phrase)
h.      The butterfly is flying beside the tree. (noun phrase)
i.         What she takes for breakfast are ripe apples. (clause)
j.         The tree produces a lot of fruits.(noun phrase)
k.       Trees with strong stems resist the wind.(phrase)
l.   Stubbornness caused this person to go out in windy conditions (noun phrase)
Compound subjects
 My mother and father breathe the pure air of the forest in their days.
/My mother and father live in Bamenda/ John and Mary eat too much in the morning./
Singular nouns using ‘or’ or ‘nor’.
/A  man or a woman takes the children to school/ The battery or the phone is bad/ The rain or the sun damages it/
Singular and plural nouns using ‘or’ or ‘nor’
/The boy or his sisters want to leave./ The shepherd or the cows have lost track/ The chair or the tables are broken.
Singular subjects that sound plural
/Mary and John hate work. Either pushes responsibility to the other./ My friend and mum always quarrel. Neither wants to work together/Everyone goes to church on Sunday/ Everybody has his pride./ Everyone likes to be respected/Any one is free to visit the office. Nobody likes him/ No one accepts he has lived in town.
Singular subjects that end in ‘s’
Mathematics is an easy subject/ News circulates that he is a millionaire.
Collective nouns
The choir sings well/ The group holds its meetings on Wednesdays/ The school has a hundred students.
Subjects accompanied by expressions
/My sister, accompanied by her friend, comes to school very early./ This boy, including the students of form five, comes late everyday./The man with his friends agrees to do the job./ Laura, as well as her sister, plays handball very well./








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