REF: Canguro English on youtube.com/ gingersoftware.com
*PHRASAL VERBS = VERB+PARTICLE.(preposition-in, at/adverb-up, down)
Example: tell-(verb)+off(particle), confide(verb)+in(particle)look(verb)+at/into(particle)
**The meanings of the verbs change according to the particles associated with them.
-To look after=take care, -to look down on= to consider inferior, -look on= to be a spectator at an event,
-to look for = try to find something, -look forward to = to await or anticipate with pleasure/
– To pass= move by, to pass out=to faint, –to put out= to extinguish,
– to put on= turn on, – put off= to postpone, to put up = to accommodate)
***Let’s try to observe some trends of meaning change according to particles.
-down = eliminates or reduces some quality of the action verb: examples: back down(withdraw), boil down (summarizes), break down (go out of order, loose control of oneself), clamp down on(to act strictly to prevent something), calm down (reduce temper), cool down (reduce temper or temperature), cut down on(reduce), ‘turn down'(refuse)
-away/off /out= separates the action contained in the verb from the object : ‘break away'(separate from a crowd), ‘back away ‘(move backwards in fear or dislike), wipe off(clean away), tell off(to reprimand or criticise), take out(remove), run out(to exhaust)
-up= increases or support the action of the verb: stick up for (defend), stand up(rise from a sitting position), shut up(impolite: seal your mouth more, keep quiet), show up(appear)
-after follows or go along with the action of the verb: Look after(take care of),
Other particles include: apart: tear apart(destroy), to: respond to (reply, react to), over: think over(consider), on: move on (go ahead)
NB: Transitive phrasal verbs take a direct object after the particle. Example: She came up with an excuse to be absent from the meeting. Intransitive phrasal verbs don’t take the direct object: Example- He wakes up at 4:00am.