*These are words that connect words, clauses, and sentences.

**They are invariable.(they never change form)

***The user can decide not to use it at all.

1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.= COORDINATORS—>for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so ***Mnemonic=FANBOYS.

#These conjunctions join two independent clauses, words, phrases; example:

/The man lived some days more for the music revived him.(linking two clauses)/

/The man cut the trees and the crops.(linking words)

/She danced for the first prize but against his parents’ will.(linking phrases)

/ We will study English now or go for sports.(two clauses)

/ The steward does laundry, yet drives the children to school.(clauses)

/ Give me the cookies so I will not disturb you for launch./(clauses)

2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS= SUBORDINATORS—-> if, since, because, after, until, while, when, where, although, though

#Joins the DEPENDENT CLAUSE to the INDEPENDENT CLAUSE—>/The ewe was bleating because it was not fed./ The bulldozer was digging while we were writing a test./ After it rained, the boys went for a stroll./

# The dependent clause as seen in the above examples can come as the first clause or the second.

3. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS:—->either/or; not only/but also; neither/nor; both/and; whether/or.

# They join words, phrases and similar clauses.  EXAMPLE: /He rises early either to prepare for school or church.(words)/He not only fears armed robbers but his criminal brothers.(phrases). He neither likes going for sports nor working on the farm.(clauses)

4. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS:—-> however, nevertheless, therefore, as a result, otherwise, furthermore, for example, finally.

#They link two clauses as other conjunctions, although they are adverbs: /A snake frightens people; however, it escapes when human beings appear./ She had a difficult relationship with her in-laws; as a result, she parted ways with her husband./


*This is a dependent clause that expresses a condition. They are also called CONDITIONALS.

***The If-clause begins or ends the sentence. Example: If I drink alcohol, I will be drunk/I will be drunk if I drink alcohol.

***The condition to be fulfilled is borne by the IF-clause. If I joke with my lessons I will score a zero.

****There are four types of conditionals: the zero conditional, type 1 conditional, type 2 conditional, type 3 conditional.

1. The zero conditional ——>IF+PRESENT SIMPLE + PRESENT SIMPLE. Expresses a fact.

There is no condition expressed in this case and the conjunction – IF can be replaced by another conjunction – WHEN./If it rains, cats never go out./Cats never go out when it rains./

Water boils if it reaches the temperature of a hundred degrees Celsius./Water boils when it reaches the temperature of a hundred degrees Celsius.

2. Type 1 conditional —–>IF+PRESENT SIMPLE+FUTURE SIMPLE. Expresses a situation of high probability in the present or future. People will suffocate if we don’t open the windows. The sure consequence (high probability) of not opening the windows is that people will suffocate.

Examples:/ If I miss the 7:00AM bus, I will catch the 7:30AM train./, We will type the letters if the Secretary comes./

3. Type 2 conditional —–>IF+PAST SIMPLE+CONDITIONAL(WOULD+INFINITIVE). Expresses low probability or no probability that the action in the if -clause will take place in the present or future. (a hypothesis)

Examples:/If we won the match we would qualify for the semi-finals./The music would impress environmentalists if it were cast in the forest.(NB: The past form of the verb to be in the type 2 conditional is were for all pronouns- –  if I were, if he were, if they were)

4. Type 3 conditional —–> IF+PAST PERFECT+PERFECT CONDITIONAL (WOULD+HAVE+PAST PERFECT). The conditional clause expresses a zero possibility. It is too late to change anything.

Examples:/If I had held the brakes, I would not have hit the child./If he had passed the EFL exam, he would have completed the requirements for the job./

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