TYPES OF ADVERBS IN ENGLISH

Ref: myenglishteacher.eu, TeachingBanyan.com, gingersoftware.com,

* Definition: An adverb is a word or a set of words that ‘provide a deeper description’ of the verb, adjectives, other adverbs and a sentence. In this role, the adverb modifies a place, time, manner, degree, frequency, quantity, and negation.

**Both preposition and adverbs don’t change their forms as verbs and nouns according to number or person.

***Many adverbs are derived from adjectives with the addition of -LY common – commonly, nice-nicely, usual – usually.

NB: Prepositional phrases group a number of words introduced by a preposition, while adverbs are in themselves autonomous. They all indicate time, place, and manner but have different forms. Below are the various types of adverbs

*Adverbs of time: Such adverbs highlight the time when the verb’s action is performed. The test question to discover these adverbs is: when?, which time? Some include: yesterday, tomorrow, today, later, now, last year, often, never, seldom /He often goes late to school./ He usually plays tennis on Saturdays/Immediately, he stripped himself naked as he felt the bite of an ant./

**Adverbs of Place: The place where an action contained in the verb happened could be expressed by these adverbs. The test question is: where? Which place? Some include: here, there, around, behind, up, down,  off, over, across, within, somewhere- /He goes up and down doing nothing./ We have been living here for two years./He goes everywhere with her.

***Adverbs of manner: The way an action is performed could be expressed by such adverbs. The test question in this case is: How?, in which way? Some include: badly, quietly, easily, ( adverbs derived from adjectives -hard, late, fast) /He drives slowly./ He spoke calmly but was poorly understood/ He works hard./ He comes late/

****Adverbs of degree: They are also called adverbs of intensity. They stress the level of intensity of the adjective. Some include: extremely, quite, just, almost, very, too, enough etc. Example: /He is so kind to attract the friendship of most children./She has a  very high appetite for starchy foods/ Our people are quite intelligent to welcome foreigners/ He is too weak to carry a stone/We are extremely saddened by the loss.

*****Adverbs of frequency: They indicate routine or repeated activity. They have a lot in common with adverbs of time. Some include: always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never. Example/The visits his people once a year./ The bulldozer grades this road annually./He seldom listens to advice./ He drinks water daily./ He never goes to work on time./

******Adverbs of affirmation (yes, definitely, clearly, surely, certainly, exactly, clearly)and negation(no, never, not -n’t, rarely, hardly, scarcely ): As the names imply, one accepts and the other refuses the action of the verb. I certainly will go./ I will not go./ Do you like playing chess? Yes./ Do you like playing chess? No.

NB: Adverbs derived from adjectives like fast, intelligent take the comparative, and the superlative forms. EXAMPLE: FAST-FASTER-FASTEST. MORE INTELLIGENTLY, MOST INTELLIGENTLY.

FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBS IN AN ENGLISH SENTENCE

  Ref: dictionary.cambridge.org

Adverbs have the main role of modifying verbs but can modify adjectives, other adverbs, sentences, clauses and phrases.

1. Adverbs can modify VERBS: Example:/ I walked fast across the parlor./ Go well! I bear no grudge against you.

2. Adverbs can modify an adjective:/The movie was very interesting./The apparently beautiful lady did a lot of make-up./ He is somewhat kind to his neighbors./

3. Adverbs can modify other adverbs: /He fought the criminals so valiantly./ He  spoke to his mother rather drowsily, that she thought he was in pains and wounded./ He almost entirely stole the show from the main actors./

4. Adverbs can modify a clause./”I am going for a run later, so I don’t want to eat anything now.”/I am seeking for the best now, in order to guarantee a brighter future for my kids./ He likes the children evidently, and will not spare any occasion to spend time with them./

5. Adverbs can modify a whole sentence./ Indeed, the complaining children were starving./

6. Modifying a noun phrase: It takes quite a lot of courage to jump from a plane./Strikingly a man of dignity, he did not react to the insults hurled on him./

SEE

 CORPUS/CONVERSATION ON

 THE ADVERB AS A WORD CLASS

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